Since its original publication in 1994, Towards a European Civil Code has become an international classic. This fourth edition of the book reflects the current state of the debate on the future of European private law and provides materials for academic teaching in this field. The Chapters of the book, written by a large number of experts on European private law, address the main topics of debate, taking into account the laws of the European Member States, the acquis communautaire in the area of private law and sets of model rules, such as the Principles of European Contract Law and the Principles of European Tort Law. Moreover, in this fourth edition of the volume, authors pay particular attention to recent developments regarding the drafting of a Common Frame of Reference for European private law. With few exceptions, the existing Chapters have been updated, and new contributions have been included on: private regulation; the influence of primary EU law on private law; competition and contract law; proceduralisation of private law; the legislative competence of the EU in the field of private law; constitutional aspects of a European Civil Code; the notion of damage; the law and economics of harmonising European private law; defects of consent in contract law; hardship and modification of the contract; financial services; suretyships by private persons; vicarious liability; liability for land and structures; and good faith acquisition of movables. Thus, this new, revised and expanded edition of Towards a European Civil Code forms a primary point of reference for policy makers, practitioners, academics and students engaged in matters of European private law.